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Rare Earth Elements: The Global Supply Chain


The concentration of production of rare earth elements (REEs) outside the United States raises the\r important issue of supply vulnerability. REEs are used for new energy technologies and national\r security applications. Two key questions of interest to Congress are: (1) Is the United States\r vulnerable to supply disruptions of REEs? (2) Are these elements essential to U.S. national\r security and economic well-being?\r There are 17 rare earth elements (REEs), 15 within the chemical group called lanthanides, plus\r yttrium and scandium. The lanthanides consist of the following: lanthanum, cerium,\r praseodymium, neodymium, promethium, samarium, europium, gadolinium, terbium,\r dysprosium, holmium, erbium, thulium, ytterbium, and lutetium. Rare earths are moderately\r abundant in the earth\'s crust, some even more abundant than copper, lead, gold, and platinum.\r While more abundant than many other minerals, REEs are not concentrated enough to make them\r easily exploitable economically. The United States was once self-reliant in domestically produced\r REEs, but over the past 15 years has become 100% reliant on imports, primarily from China,\r because of lower-cost operations.\r Bills: H.R. 761


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Older Versions:

Rare Earth Elements: The Global Supply Chain  [Order No: R41347  Release Date: Jun 08,2012  Pages: 27]

Rare Earth Elements: The Global Supply Chain  [Order No: R41347  Release Date: Sep 06,2011  Pages: 26]

Rare Earth Elements: The Global Supply Chain  [Order No: R41347  Release Date: Sep 30,2010  Pages: 15]

Rare Earth Elements: The Global Supply Chain  [Order No: R41347  Release Date: Jul 28,2010  Pages: 14]