- Congressional Liaison Offices of Selected Federal Agencies -- Click to view this document
- Recently Expired Housing Related Tax Provisions ("Tax Extenders"): In Brief -- Click to view this document
- Sanitary and Phytosanitary (SPS) and Related Non-Tariff Barriers to Agricultural Trade -- Click to view this document
- Reform of the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Courts: A Brief Overview -- Click to view this document
- Unlawfully Present Aliens, Driver\'s Licenses, and Other State-Issued ID: Select Legal Issues -- Click to view this document
- Navy Littoral Combat Ship (LCS) Program: Background and Issues for Congress -- Click to view this document
- Navy Aegis Ballistic Missile Defense (BMD) Program: Background and Issues for Congress -- Click to view this document
- Runaway and Homeless Youth: Demographics and Programs -- Click to view this document
- The Budget Control Act and Trends in Discretionary Spending -- Click to view this document
- The U.S. Secret Service: History and Missions -- Click to view this document
- Survivor Benefits for Families of Civilian Federal Employees and Retirees -- Click to view this document
- The Peace Corps: Current Issues -- Click to view this document
- Navy Irregular Warfare and Counterterrorism Operations: Background and Issues for Congress -- Click to view this document
- Navy Ship Names: Background For Congress -- Click to view this document
Energy Efficiency: A Compendium
The energy crises of the 1970s spurred the federal government, and some state governments,Â to mount a variety of energy policies to address concerns about oil import dependence,Â high energy prices, and overall energy security. Since then, additional economicÂ and environmental concernsâ€”especially international competitiveness, air pollution, and climateÂ changeâ€”have also driven policy proposals to support efficiency.
As the nation seeks to reduce imported energy and to increase production fromÂ â€œcleanâ€ domestic sources, there may continue to be interest in additional federal spending,Â tax incentives, and regulatory measures to further help overcome market barriers to efficiencyÂ measures. Also, any future efforts to create a cap and trade program for greenhouse gasÂ emissions could include auctions of emission credits to generate revenue that could, in part,Â be used to fund energy efficiency initiatives.
Although energy efficiency measures may often be less costly than new supply, marketÂ barriers often prevent measures from being implemented. For example, because homeÂ builders do not expect to pay the energy bills, they tend to design building shell features andÂ choose energy-using equipment based on â€œfirst costâ€ rather than â€œlife cycleâ€ cost. As a result,Â new homes may lack operationally cost effective end-use energy efficiency measures (e.g.Â thermal windows and a high efficiency furnace). Also, electric utility companies were designedÂ to make profits by selling ever-greater amounts of electricity, instead of providing incentivesÂ to customers to reduce demand by improving energy efficiency. To address suchÂ barriers, an array of funding, tax incentives, and regulations (primarily equipment efficiencyÂ standards) have been enacted to encourage energy efficiency improvements.
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