- Congressional Liaison Offices of Selected Federal Agencies -- Click to view this document
- Recently Expired Housing Related Tax Provisions ("Tax Extenders"): In Brief -- Click to view this document
- Sanitary and Phytosanitary (SPS) and Related Non-Tariff Barriers to Agricultural Trade -- Click to view this document
- Reform of the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Courts: A Brief Overview -- Click to view this document
- Unlawfully Present Aliens, Driver\'s Licenses, and Other State-Issued ID: Select Legal Issues -- Click to view this document
- Navy Littoral Combat Ship (LCS) Program: Background and Issues for Congress -- Click to view this document
- Navy Aegis Ballistic Missile Defense (BMD) Program: Background and Issues for Congress -- Click to view this document
- Runaway and Homeless Youth: Demographics and Programs -- Click to view this document
- The Budget Control Act and Trends in Discretionary Spending -- Click to view this document
- The U.S. Secret Service: History and Missions -- Click to view this document
- Survivor Benefits for Families of Civilian Federal Employees and Retirees -- Click to view this document
- The Peace Corps: Current Issues -- Click to view this document
- Navy Irregular Warfare and Counterterrorism Operations: Background and Issues for Congress -- Click to view this document
- Navy Ship Names: Background For Congress -- Click to view this document
Biofuels: A Compendium
Since the late 1970s, U.S. policymakers at both the federal and state levels haveÂ enacted a variety of incentives, regulations, and programs to encourage theÂ production and use of agriculture-based biofuels. Initially, federal biofuels policiesÂ were developed to help kick-start the biofuels industry during its earlyÂ development, when neither production capacity nor a market for the finishedÂ product was widely available. Federal policy has played a key role in helping toÂ close the price gap between biofuels and cheaper petroleum fuels. Now, as theÂ industry has evolved, other policy goals (e.g., national energy security, climateÂ change concerns, support for rural economies) are cited by proponents asÂ justification for continuing policy support.
The U.S. biofuels sector has responded to these government incentives byÂ expanding output every year since 1980 (with the exception of 1996), withÂ important implications for the domestic and international food and fuel sectors.Â The production of ethanol (the primary biofuel produced in the United States) hasÂ risen from about 175 million gallons in 1980 to nearly 14 billion gallons in 2011.Â U.S. biodiesel production, albeit much smaller, has also shown strong growth,Â rising from 0.5 million gallons in 1999 to a projected 800 million gallons in 2011.
Despite this rapid growth, total agriculture-based biofuels production accounted forÂ only about 8% of U.S. transportation fuel consumption (gasoline and dieselÂ combined) on a volume basis and 6% on a gasoline-equivalent basis in 2011.Â Federal biofuels policies have had costs, including unintended market andÂ environmental consequences and large federal outlays (estimated at over $6 billionÂ in 2011). Despite the direct and indirect costs of federal biofuels policy and theÂ relatively small role of biofuels as an energy source, the U.S. biofuels sectorÂ continues to push for federal involvement. But critics of federal policy interventionÂ in the biofuels sector have also emerged.
THE DOCUMENT INCLUDES FOLLOWING FILES:
|#||FILE NAME||Document Date||Order ID:||Number of Pages||PRICE|
|1||Biofuels compendium finished.pdf||Dec 14, 2012||C-12006||206||$59.95||ADD TO CART|